Home Cognitive Dissonance What Is An Intellectual Disability?
Cognitive Dissonance

What Is An Intellectual Disability?

A neurodevelopmental issue known as intellectual impairment usually appears in childhood. It influences daily habits including social skills and cleanliness practices, as well as your capacity to acquire and remember new knowledge. People who have this illness have considerable difficulties thinking critically and learning adaptive abilities including social and life skills. 1

Whether a person has an intellectual impairment is determined by an IQ test. Intellectual impairment is indicated by an IQ score below 70. The condition’s severity can range from slight to severe. 2

Mild intellectual disability: Mild-to-moderate forms of intellectual disability are the most common. With little assistance, they may pick up useful life skills and carry out regular activities. However, individuals could have trouble learning social skills and comprehending how things function.

Significant developmental delays may occur in your child if they have a serious intellectual handicap. Since they have poor communication skills, they require more assistance than kids with minor intellectual impairments.

Child with significant intellectual disability: Children with profound intellectual impairments usually struggle to communicate and move about physically. They have a higher chance of getting certain illnesses. They usually require care and assistance around-the-clock.

With the right help, children with modest intellectual impairments can live totally independent lives. Children with significant intellectual disabilities, however, require more extensive and ongoing assistance. Mental retardation was the term used for this illness until it developed negative connotations in society and was replaced by intellectual impairment. This phrase conveys the gravity of the issue and is less insulting.

One of the most prevalent developmental impairments in children is intellectual disability. About 6.5 million Americans are thought to be intellectually disabled. 3

Intellectual disability types

A variety of illnesses are usually categorized as intellectual impairments. Among the most typical are:

Fragile X-Syndrome: This genetic disorder is brought on by X chromosomal alterations. The most typical hereditary intellectual handicap is this one. 4 Speech difficulties, sensory abnormalities, and behavioral modifications are some of its symptoms. 5

Down syndrome: One of the most prevalent types of intellectual impairment is Down syndrome. A person with the syndrome grows an extra chromosome, which alters how the body and brain develop. People with Down syndrome have unique physical traits that serve as indicators of the disorder. They could have an elongated neck, tiny limbs and legs, a flattened face and nose, small ears, and almond-shaped eyes. They often have lower IQs than the norm and developmental disabilities. 6

PWS (Prader-Willi syndrome) It is a rare genetic disorder that has an impact on the growth of the child’s mind and body. Hyperphagia, or persistent eating, is a key characteristic of this condition. Due to this, a lot of kids with this illness end up being obese. Weak muscular tone, behavioral issues, and intellectual delay are other signs. 7

FASD: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are a group of ailments brought on by drinking excessively during pregnancy. Small quantities of alcohol use during pregnancy, however, can cause the illness. FASD is usually characterized by cognitive issues, low IQ, atypical facial traits, and vision or hearing impairments. 8

Autism: A neurological disorder called autism causes difficulties with social interaction, conduct, and communication. Although the exact etiology of the illness is unknown, it is dubious if hereditary and environmental factors interact to generate the disorder. The inability to make eye contact, lack of interest in social relationships, non-verbal communication, and sensory sensitivity are a few typical signs.

ADHD and Learning Disabilities: A Relationship Signs of an intellectual impairment

Intellectual impairment signs often first appear in early infancy. These indications might occasionally be physical. You could see that your child’s hands or feet are different sizes or shapes, or that they have other physical anomalies. This isn’t always the case, though.

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Children with intellectual difficulties may also be physically healthy and normal-looking. Children with a severe form of intellectual impairment could start showing signs earlier than those with a moderate version. Here are some early indicators to look out for if you’re concerned that your kid may have an intellectual disability:

  1. speaking is challenging
  2. Begin to walk later than typical children.
  3. Difficulty with simple directions
  4. Difficulty learning social skills
  5. Sluggish motor skills
  6. Tour
  7. Temper tantrums
  8. Aggressive attitude
  9. having trouble remembering stuff
  10. Having trouble solving the issue
  11. improving social skills is challenging
  12. Inability to communicate one’s emotions
  13. Not being able to do things like dress up or take a bath
  14. Overview of frontier cognitive processes
  15. How to recognize an intellectual impairment

The following conditions must be satisfied to diagnose intellectual disability:

Restricted intellectual capacity:

An IQ test is typically used to assess this. A test score below 70 often indicates intellectually impaired functioning.

Limited adaptability: A person with an intellectual handicap would struggle in this situation to develop the social and practical skills necessary for everyday living. These include mental abilities like reading and writing; interpersonal abilities like communicating with others or solving problems; and everyday abilities like walking, eating, and dressing.

Before age 18, symptoms appear: Typically, this disorder starts in childhood. While this is severe, some early symptoms include delayed motor abilities, difficulties with problem-solving, poor memory, and delayed speaking.

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Written by

Greetings, I am Dr. Ashutosh Tripathi, a psychologist with extensive expertise in criminal behavior and its impact on psychological well-being. I hold a Master of Physics (Honors), a Master of Philosophy, a Master of Psychology, and a PhD in Psychology from BHU in India.Over the past 13 years, I have been privileged to serve more than 3200 patients with unique and varied psychological needs. My clinical work is guided by a deep passion for helping individuals navigate complex psychological issues and live more fulfilling lives.As a recognized contributor to the field of psychology, my articles have been published in esteemed Indian news forums, such as The Hindu, The Times of India, and Punjab Kesari. I am grateful for the opportunity to have been honored by the Government of Israel for my contributions to the Psychological Assistance Program.I remain committed to advancing our understanding of psychology and its applications through my ongoing research, which can be found on leading online libraries such as Science Direct, Wiley, Elsevier, Orcid, Google Scholar, and loop Frontiers. I am also an active contributor to Quora, where I share my insights on various psychological issues.Overall, I see myself as a lifelong student of psychology, constantly learning and growing from my patients, colleagues, and peers. I consider it a great privilege to have the opportunity to serve others in this field and to contribute to our collective understanding of the human mind and behavior.

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